Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiling of Gram-Negative Bacteria Causing Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Hyderabad, Sindh


Upper Respiratory Tract
Antibiotic Resistance
Gram-Negative Bacteria
Klebsiella pneumonia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
E. coli

How to Cite

Maka, G., Shah, S., Bano, S., & Tunio, S. A. (2020). Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiling of Gram-Negative Bacteria Causing Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Hyderabad, Sindh. Journal of Life and Bio Sciences Research , 1(01), 12-15.


Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are important clinical problems and among the commonest infectious diseases throughout the world. Several factors including gender, age and season have been shown to influence the prevalence rates of RTIs. The current study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria causing of upper respiratory tract (URT) infections and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolated bacteria. A total of 201 sputum and swab samples were collected from patients from August 2015 to March 2016 and investigated for Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. The antibiotic sensitivity of isolated bacteria was performed using Kirby Bauer Disc diffusion method. Isolation and identification of the bacteria were carried out using conventional methods including microscopic, cultural and biochemical testing. Out of 201 samples, 29.85% (n=60) yielded bacterial growth in which 20.9% (n=42) belonged to male while 8.96% (n=18) were from female patients. Among the isolates, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most frequent bacteria accounting 48.33% (n=29), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 45% (n=27) and E. coli 6.67% (n=04). The data of antibiotic susceptibility profiling demonstrated that Cefoperazone sulbactam, Meropenem, Piperacillin Tazobactam and Amikacin were highly effective against all isolated bacteria. However, Ampicillin, Cephradine, Ofloxacin and Co-trimoxazole were found the least effective antibiotics against all isolated bacteria. In summary, an increasing trend in the resistance against antibiotics which are more frequently prescribed, such as Cephradine, Ampicillin and Co-trimoxazole was observed. Therefore, a continuous surveillance of antibiotic resistance trends of pathogens is needed to ensure appropriate recommendations for the treatment of the URTIs.


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