Microbiological and Molecular Study of K1, K2 Genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Urine Specimens in Duhok city, Iraq


Klebsiella pneumoniae
Urinary tract infection
capsular typing

How to Cite

Qasim, B. M., & Khalid, H. (2022). Microbiological and Molecular Study of K1, K2 Genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Urine Specimens in Duhok city, Iraq. Journal of Life and Bio Sciences Research , 3(01), 12 - 16. https://doi.org/10.38094/jlbsr30157


Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of infections, particularly urinary tract infections (UTIs). Urine samples were taken from 800 patients with clinical indications of UTI who visited the inpatient and outpatient clinics from governorate hospitals and private clinics, namely, Azadi Teaching hospital, Duhok Emergency hospital, Heevi Pediatrics Teaching hospital and Vajeen Private hospital in Duhok city. Standard bacteriological methods were used to identify isolated colonies from urine samples cultured on bacterial media.  A species-specific PCR assay was used to identify K. pneumoneae isolates at molecular level PCR assays and capsular type counting of the K1 and K2 genes were detected among 50 K. pneumoniae isolates. The furthermost predominant genes amongst all isolates were K1 gene (12%) followed by K2 gene (8%). This study emphasized on K. pneumoniae as sources of UTIs that displayed to harboring K1 and K2 genes. The goal of this work was to investigate the mucoviscosity of K.  pneumoniae isolated from a urinary tract infection and to screen for certain virulence factor genes such as K1 and K2 genes.



Adwan, G. M., Owda, D. M., Abu-Hijleh, A. A. (2020) .Prevalence of Capsular Polysaccharide Genes and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Palestine. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences, 13(4), 475–482.

Al-Gasha’a, F. A.S., Al-Baker, S. M., Obiad, J, M., Alrobiai, F, A.(2020). Prevalence of urinary tract infections and associated risk factors among patients attending medical city hospital in Baghdad City, Iraq. Revista Brasileira de Gestao e Desenvolvimento Regional, 16(2), 77–84.

Al-Kraetay, I. A. A., Alquraishi, Z. H. O. ,Alsadawi, A. A. (2020). Molecular study of fimh gene in Klebisella pneumoniae isolated from urinary catheter patients. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, 14(2), 473–477.

Al-Naqshbandi, A. A., Chawsheen, M. A., Abdulqader, H. H. (2019) Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from urine specimens received in rizgary hospital — Erbil. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 12(3), 330–336.

Albasha, A. M., Osman, E A., Saga, A. A., Elianz, F .H., Leena, A-A., Hisham, N. (2020) .Detection of several carbapenems resistant and virulence genes in classical and hyper-virulent strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from hospitalized neonates and adults in Khartoum.BMC Research Notes, 1–7.

Ali, S. , Al-dahmoshi, H. O. M. (2021) .Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Patients with Cystitis. Annals of R.S.C.B, 25(4), 1336–1347.

Ali,F.A., Nabaa, Q., Shiya, H. (2017).Isolation and Identification of Multidrug Resistant Klebsiella Spp . Causing Urinary Tract Infections, International Journal of Research Studies in Science, Engineering and Technology ,4(11), 1–6.

Alyassari, A.,Neamah, A. J.,Meteab , M. M. Abdullah, A-I, I. N. (2019) .Genotypic Characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Human and Sheep in Al Qadisiyah Province, Iraq. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology, 13(3), 1783–1789.

Cheng, L., S, L. K.,Chiang, T. (2013) .A Case of Carbapenem Resistant Non-K1/K2 Serotype <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i> Liver Abscess. Advances in Infectious Diseases, 03(03), 219-222.

Chuang, Y.P., Fang, C. T., Lai, S. Y., Chaing, S.C., Wang, J. T. (2006) .Genetic determinants of capsular serotype K1 of Klebsiella pneumoniae causing primary pyogenic liver abscess. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 193(5), 645–654.

Compain, F., Babosan, A., Brisse, S., Genel, N., Audo, J., Ailloud, F., Kassis-Chikhani, N., Arlet, G., Decré, D. (2014) .Multiplex PCR for detection of seven virulence factors and K1/K2 capsular serotypes of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 52(12), 4377–4380.

Doud, M. S., Grimes-Zeppegno, R., Molina, E., Miller, N., Balachandar, D., Schneper, L., Poppiti, R., Mathee, K. (2009) .A k2A-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae causes liver and brain abscess in a Saint Kitt’s man. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 6(6), 301–304.

Dubey, D., Raza, F. S., Anshudha, S., Ambarish ,P., (2013) .Klebsiella pneumoniae Renal Abscess Syndrome: A Rare Case with Metastatic Involvement of Lungs, Eye, and Brain.Case Reports in Infectious Diseases, 2013, 1-3.

Fang, C-T., Lai, S-Y., Yi, W-C., Hsueh, P-R., Liu, K-L. (2010) .The function of wzy-K1 (magA), the serotype K1 polymerase gene in klebsiella pneumoniae cps gene cluster. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 201(8), 1268–1269.

Green M and Sambrook J. (2012). Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 4th ed. Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. New York.

Hasan, M. T., Ghaima, K.K., Abdulhassan, A. A., Alwan, K. (2021). Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Gram-negative Bacteria in Pediatric Patients with Urinary Tract Infections in Baghdad Hospitals , Iraq Study Design and Population Processing of Samples.Annals of R.S.C.B, 25(6), 6102–6109.

Hasani, A., Soltani, E., Rezaee, M.A., Pirzadeh, T., Oskouee, M.A., Hasani, A., Gholizadeh, P., Oskouie, A. N., Binesh, E. (2020) .Serotyping of klebsiella pneumoniae and its relation with capsule-associated virulence genes, antimicrobial resistance pattern, and clinical infections: A descriptive study in medical practice’, Infection and Drug Resistance, 13, 1971–1980.

Mahon C, R. Lehman D, C. Manuselis G. (2019). Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology.5th ed. Chine., Elsevier,

Moghadas, Al.J., Kalantari, F., Sarfi, M., Soroush, S.,Shiva, M. (2018). Evaluation of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance patterns in clinical urine isolates of klebsiella pneumoniae in Semnan, Iran.Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 11(7), 7–12.

Moustafa, A., Li, W., Singh, H., Moncera, K. J., Torralba, M. G., Yu, Y.,Telenti, A. (2018). Microbial metagenome of urinary tract infection. Scientific reports, 8(1),1-12.

Osman, E, A., El-Amin, N., Adrees, E.A. E. Al-Hassan, L., Mukhtar, M. (2020) .Comparing conventional, biochemical and genotypic methods for accurate identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Sudan. Access Microbiology, 2(3), 25.

Paczosa, M. K., Mecsas, J. (2016) .Klebsiella pneumoniae: ir a la ofensiva con una defensa fuerte.Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 80(3), 629661.

Pan, Y.J., Lin, T.L., Chen, C. T., Chen, Y. Y., Hsieh, P.F., Hsu, C. R., Wu, M. C., Wang, J. T.(2015) .Genetic analysis of capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene clusters in 79 capsular types of Klebsiella spp. Scientific Reports, 5(October), 110.

Patro, L. P. P., Rathinavelan, T. (2019) .Targeting the Sugary Armor of Klebsiella Species. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.

Ranjbar, R., Kelishadrokhi, A. F., Chehelgerdi, M. (2019) .Molecular characterization, serotypes and phenotypic and genotypic evaluation of antibiotic resistance of the Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from different types of hospital-acquired infections. Infection and Drug Resistance, 12, 603611.

Remya, P., Shanthi, M., Sekar, U. (2018) .Occurrence and characterization of hyperviscous K1 and K2 serotype in Klebsiella pneumoniael.Journal of Laboratory Physicians, 10(03), 283288.

Shoaib, M., Muzammil, I., Hammad, M., Bhutta, Z.A., Yaseen, I.(2020) .A Mini-Review on Commonly used Biochemical Tests for Identification of Bacteria.International Journal of Research Publications, 54(1), 16.

Shon, A. S., Bajwa, R. P. S.,Russo, T. A. (2013) .Hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) Klebsiella Pneumoniae: A new and dangerous breed.Virulence, 4(2), 107118.

Vuotto, C., Longo, F., Pascolini, C., Donelli, G., Balice, M. P., Libori, M. F., Tiracchia, V., Salvia, A.,Varaldo, P. E. (2017) .Biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae urinary strains Journal of Applied Microbiology, 123(4), 10031018.

Yu, W. L., Ko, W.C., Cheng, K. C., Lee, H. C., Ke, D. S., Lee, C. C., Fung, C. P.,Chuang, Y. Ching (2006) .Association between rmpA and magA genes and clinical syndromes caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 42(10), 13511358.

Yu, W. L., Fung, C. P., Ko, W. C., Cheng, K. C., Lee, C. C., Chuang, Y. C. (2007) .Polymerase chain reaction analysis for detecting capsule serotypes K1 and K2 of Klebsiella pneumoniae causing abscesses of the liver and other sites .Journal of Infectious Diseases, 195(8), 12351236.

Zedan, T., & Al-Jailawi, M. (2019). Determination of K1 and K2 Capsular serotypes for Klebsiella Pneumoniae using magA and K2a genes as specific molecular diagnosis tools. International Journal of Biological & Pharmaceutical Research, 4(12), 1283-1288.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Array