Meta-analysis with assessment of some Phylogenetic Relationship of Entamoeba histolytica of Iraq and Iran


Entamoeba histolytica
Molecular Epidemiology

How to Cite

Meerkhan, A., Haider, S., Raziq, A., & Hussen, J. (2022). Meta-analysis with assessment of some Phylogenetic Relationship of Entamoeba histolytica of Iraq and Iran. Journal of Life and Bio Sciences Research , 3(02), 46 -50.


Protozoans of Entamoeba spp. are globally distributed protozoan parasites that infect diverse hosts (human and animals) causing amebiasis with various symptoms ranging from abdominal discomfort, indigestion, diarrhoea, bloody diarrhoea, and even death. Entamoeba histolytica infection may be influenced by different strains which are already existing in our population. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the sequence comparison and geneflow of E. histolytica in Iraq and Iran. For this purpose, all reference sequences recorded from the aforementioned countries and deposited in the National Centre for Biology Information (NCBI) database of the mentioned countries (133 reference sequences, 110 from Iraq and 23 from Iran) were included in this study. After aligning and blasting all these sequences and considering the shared regions, eight unique sequences were obtained. According to the Codon-based Z-test of selections, they vary in degree of difference (p-value 0.05). Some records from the study area approached each other 100% which means that geneflow has occurred in the areas under investigation. Outstanding phylogenetic relationship of Entamoeba histolytica of both Iraq and Iran strains are related together and that is important in the molecular epidemiology aspect of amebiasis as it may influence the clinical and pharmacological orientation of the disease in both countries. Current meta-analysis was done for the first time in that approach in the place this study.


Al-Mayali, H., Al-Abodi, H. (2017). Molecular characterization of Entamoeba spp. parasite in Al-Qadisiya province, Iraq. Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology, 9(1), 374-386.

Ali, I., Solaymani-Mohammadi, S., Akhter J, Roy S, Gorrini C, Calderaro A, et al. (2008). Tissue invasion by Entamoeba histolytica: evidence of genetic selection and/or DNA reorganization events in organ tropism. PLoS Negl Trop 2:e219.

Bahrami, F., Haghighi, A., Zamini, G., Khademerfan, M. (2019). Differential detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii in faecal samples using nested multiplex PCR in west of Iran. J Epidemiology Infection, 147.

Clark, C.G., Alsmark, U.C., Tazreiter, M., Saito-Nakano, Y., Ali, V., Marion, S., et al. (2007). Structure and content of the Entamoeba histolytica genome. Adv Parasitol, 65, 51-190. doi: 10.1016/S0065-308X(07)65002-7

Cui, Z., Li, J., Chen, Y., Zhang, L. (2019). Molecular epidemiology, evolution, and phylogeny of Entamoeba spp. J Infection, Genetics Evolution, 75, 104018.

Das, K., Ganguly, S. (2014). Evolutionary genomics and population structure of Entamoeba histolytica. Comput Struct Biotechnol J, 12(20-21), 26-33.

De la Vega, H., Specht, C.A., Semino, C.E., Robbins, P.W., Eichinger, D., Caplivski, D., et al. (1997). Cloning and expression of chitinases of Entamoebae. Mol Biochem Parasitol, 85(2), 139-147. doi: 10.1016/s0166-6851(96)02817-4.

Graham, C., Farrokh Kaffashian, Blessing Tawari, Jeffrey J Windsor, Anke Twigg-Flesner, Mina C G Davies-Morel, et al. (2006). New insights into the phylogeny of Entamoeba species provided by analysis of four new small-subunit rRNA genes nt J Syst Evol Microbiol, 56(Pt 9), 2235-2239.

Haghighi, A., Khorashad, A.S., Mojarad, E.N., Kazemi, B., Nejad, M.R., Rasti, S., et al. (2009). Frequency of enteric protozoan parasites among patients with gastrointestinal complaints in medical centers of Zahedan, Iran. J Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine, 103(5), 452-454.

Haghighi, A., Kobayashi, S., Takeuchi, T., Masuda, G., Nozaki, T. (2002). Remarkable genetic polymorphism among Entamoeba histolytica isolates from a limited geographic area. J Clin Microbiol, 40(11), 4081-4090.

Lemey, P., Salemi, M., Vandamme, A.-M. (2009). The phylogenetic handbook: a practical approach to phylogenetic analysis and hypothesis testing: Cambridge University Press.

Liò, P., Goldman, N. (1998). Models of molecular evolution and phylogeny. J Genome research, 8(12), 1233-1244.

Loftus, B., Anderson, I., Davies, R., Alsmark, U.C., Samuelson, J., Amedeo, P., et al. (2005). The genome of the protist parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Nature, 433(7028), 865-868.

Lorenzi, H., Thiagarajan, M., Haas, B., Wortman, J., Hall, N., Caler, E. (2008). Genome wide survey, discovery and evolution of repetitive elements in three Entamoeba species. BMC Genomics, 9, 595.

Martin, D.P., Lemey, P., Posada, D. (2011). Analysing recombination in nucleotide sequences. J Molecular Ecology Resources, 11(6), 943-955.

Mohammadzadeh, A., Spotin, A., Mahami-Oskouei, M., Haghighi, A., Zebardast, N., Kohansal, K. (2017). Gene migration for re-emerging amebiasis in Iran’s northwest–Iraq borders: a microevolutionary scale for reflecting epidemiological drift of Entamoeba histolytica metapopulations. J Parasitology research, 116(1), 217-224.

Razmjou, E., Haghighi, A., Rezaian, M., Kobayashi, S., Nozaki, T. (2006). Genetic diversity of glucose phosphate isomerase from Entamoeba histolytica. J Parasitology international, 55(4), 307-311.

Rivera, W.L., Santos, S.R., Kanbara, H. (2006). Prevalence and genetic diversity of Entamoeba histolytica in an institution for the mentally retarded in the Philippines. Parasitol Res, 98(2), 106-110.

Rostami, S., Rezaeian, M., Jamali, R., Rezaie, S., Babaei, Z., Hooshyar, H. (2017). Differences in Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase 5 gene isolated from Bandar Abbas and Tabriz, Iran. 5(2), 49-53.

Salemi, M., Vandamme, A.-M., Lemey, P. (2009). The phylogenetic handbook: a practical approach to phylogenetic analysis and hypothesis testing: Cambridge University Press.

Shah, P.H., MacFarlane, R.C., Bhattacharya, D., Matese, J.C., Demeter, J., Stroup, S.E., et al. (2005). Comparative genomic hybridizations of Entamoeba strains reveal unique genetic fingerprints that correlate with virulence. Eukaryot Cell, 4(3), 504-515.

Silberman, J.D., Clark, C.G., Diamond, L.S., Sogin, M.L. (1999). Phylogeny of the genera Entamoeba and Endolimax as deduced from small-subunit ribosomal RNA sequences. 16(12), 1740-1751.

Stanley, S.L., Jr. (2003). Amoebiasis. Lancet, 361(9362), 1025-1034.

Strimmer, K., von Haeseler, A. (1996). Accuracy of neighbor joining for n-taxon trees. Systematic Biology, 45(4), 516-523.

Tawari, B., Ali, I.K., Scott, C., Quail, M.A., Berriman, M., Hall, N., et al. (2008). Patterns of evolution in the unique tRNA gene arrays of the genus Entamoeba. Mol Biol Evol, 25(1), 187-198.

Teixeira, J.E., Huston, C.D. (2008). Participation of the serine-rich Entamoeba histolytica protein in amebic phagocytosis of apoptotic host cells. Infect Immun, 76(3), 959-966.

Van de Peer, Y., Rensing, S.A., Maier, U.-G., De Wachter, R. (1996). Substitution rate calibration of small subunit ribosomal RNA identifies chlorarachniophyte endosymbionts as remnants of green algae. 93(15), 7732-7736.

Vandamme, A. (2009). The Phylogenetic Handbook: Basic concepts of molecular evolution, 2, 3-32.

Weedall, G.D., Clark, C.G., Koldkjaer, P., Kay, S., Bruchhaus, I., Tannich, E., et al. (2012). Genomic diversity of the human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica. 13(5), 1-13.

Weedall, G.D., Hall, N. (2011). Evolutionary genomics of Entamoeba. Res Microbiol, 162(6), 637-645.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Array